Translator: Joseph Geni
Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz Now, I know it might be easy to think that microbes are bad, especially for infants, but research has in fact
proven the opposite. And the truth might be
a little bit more complex, but it’s actually way more interesting. It seems that we need microbes to be programmed for good health, but not just any microbes, we need the right combination. We succeed best
with the little microbial bodies we have adapted to coexist with
during evolution. And I guess it won’t surprise you to learn that we start acquiring
that right combination right at birth. Well, at least some of us do. Babies born by C-section
and babies born vaginally aren’t the same when it comes to microbial start to life, and after birth there are
countless different early life events and circumstances that further modulate the way
the gut microbiota is developing, such as the medications that might be
prescribed for the infant or the mother, number of pets and siblings in the family, as well as level of hygiene at home, and, in this case, it’s actually better if it’s not that perfectly
clean all the time. And also nutrition,
both mothers and infants. All of these events
and circumstances play a huge role in the gut microbial development and that has a huge impact
on the lifelong health of that baby. And I’m not talking about
small health implications here. I’m talking about the big stuff. Microbes we acquire or do not acquire affect our likelihood of developing
diseases like obesity, diabetes and even some cancers. Since many of these
early life events I just listed are such that we cannot affect them, they are inevitable, for example C-sections
have been invented to save lives, and they do that daily, and most medications
are prescribed for a valid reason, especially for infants, and so on. That is why we have to learn how to protect the health of these babies after the occurrence
of such early life events that might disrupt their gut
microbiota development. I work as a researcher and as a technical lead
of an infant health platform, and the question I’m trying
to find a solution to every day at work, and the same question
I’m aiming to answer in this talk, is how can we make sure that all babies get the same shot
at lifelong health, no matter how they’re born
or what early life events they encounter. Seems like a noble cause, right? Great. So let’s figure this out. To begin, remember how I said that we need
the right combination of microbes? Well, to get that combination right, we need to receive those microbes
that inhabit our bodies in a certain order. You can think of it
like a colonization march. The very early microbes
that inhabit our bodies first change the environment in the infant’s gut so that the next microbes
are able to move in, kind of like the first invaders come in first and set up
the infrastructure for the other settlers to build upon. Now, if babies are born via C-section, that early phase of colonization
is greatly altered, because instead of vaginal,
fecal and skin bacteria of the mother, mainly only skin bacteria
enter the infant gut. And that sets that colonization march
to a totally different tone, and simply because that’s different
to what we’ve adapted to during evolution, that might cause some health disadvantages
for C-section-born babies later on. We can take weight development
as an example here. It has been already shown
in several studies that gut microbiota composition is associated to weight as well as the likelihood
of developing diseases like diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. But now there are some indications that you could already at infancy see from a fecal sample of a baby some microbes missing
from those individuals who will later on develop
to be obese or overweight. It has also been shown
that those same microbes might be missing from babies
who are born by C-section or who are predisposed to heavy loads
of antibiotics in early life. And to kind of close this loop, it has also been shown in some research that babies born by C-section or are prescribed with many,
many antibiotics early in life are more likely to be obese
or overweight, even by 50 percent, which is a lot. Now, I know you might
be thinking at this point that, oh no, I just had a C-section
or I was born via C-section or my child had the antibiotics. But I want you to not worry. If these microbes are missing or are lost for any reason, they can be acquired later, but the baby just needs
a little help with that. One thing that has already for some time
been known to help is breastfeeding. Breast milk is kind of miraculous: in addition to containing
nutrients for the baby, it seems to contain food
for the good microbes as well. That’s great for a breastfed baby, but we all know that all babies
are not breastfed. So what could we do to ensure that also
those babies who are not breastfed could restore their microbiota development after encountering
those disruptive early life events that might disrupt
their gut microbiota development? And now we get to the actual
solution part of this talk. The research in this field
has been taking giant steps lately. First, it was understood
that if there are some microbes missing, they can be ingested. We call the good microbes,
when they are ingested, probiotics, and probiotics have been tested in several clinical trials
during the years, also in infants, with great effects, such as reducing their risk
of eczema later in life. Now, a second revolution was realized when the eyes of researchers
were turned to breast milk. That was logical, as, like I mentioned, it was already known that breastfeeding
is able to support the healthy development of gut microbiota. There were these particles in breast milk that were found already in the 1930s called human milk oligosaccharides, but their function remained a mystery for decades and decades
after their initial discovery. They were really puzzling for researchers, as they are really abundant in human milk. They are actually
the third-largest group of solids, but they are not digestible
by humans, not even infants. So why would mothers synthesize
something to breast milk, use their resources to put something there that is not utilizable by the infant? Usually nature does not work that way. Right? So it was quite a revelation
when it was finally understood what’s the role of these particles, and that it is to selectively feed
the microbes that are best for infants, and that way to affect the infant health. There are over a hundred
of different HMO structures, and nowadays we are able to synthesize
some of them also in the lab, and that enables us to package them up with probiotics for children and infants who are not able to receive them
from breast milk to restore their microbiota after encountering
disruptive early life events. And that is the solution. As a researcher, I must say at this point that research in this field
is still ongoing and a lot of work remains to be done. That’s a favorite sentence
of us scientists. But we are taking steps
towards understanding better and better which are the key missing microbes
in various situations and what HMOs we should package
with which probiotics to help restore the microbiota of that
particular baby in that particular case. What I wish you to remember from this talk is that, yes, vaginally born
breastfed baby has the microbiota we have evolved to adapt to, but in cases where that is not possible, there are means to reduce
the negative health consequences. Lastly, I wish you to imagine
a world for a while, a world where there would be
such a health care system that when you take your baby
to a health care check, they would routinely monitor the gut
microbiota development of that baby, and if any disruptions would be noted, a tailor-made product
to restore the microbiota would be prescribed. I mean, how wonderful would that be, if the onset of any chronic diseases
would be extremely rare because of this preemptive
health care system? Can you imagine such a world? Do you believe that that kind
of future would be possible? I do. I believe in that future
and I want to contribute in the unfolding of that future, a future in which each baby
has an equal starting point for life to be programmed for lifelong health. Thank you. (Applause)

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Methew Wade

100 thoughts on “How the gut microbes you’re born with affect your lifelong health | Henna-Maria Uusitupa”

  1. I'm on the carnivore diet and feel amazing. I don't think we need many gut bugs. However I think it's really about living off of too much sugar and attracting too many bad bugs .

  2. True it may affect lifelong health but it doesn't mean that with a healthy nutritional diet effects can't be reverted.

  3. It was a priority to have our children vaginally so they have a better chance with their gut bugs. We've also been using Oriental Herbal Nutrients or OHN. It takes like 3 months to make but the results speak for themselves. Check out Dr. Cho if anyone is interested in boosting their gut bug soldiers 🙂

  4. Yeah…10 minutes to say we can now make some HMO's in the lab?

    What about the mother not having the right biome to begin with? How different are gut biomes for individuals?

  5. I have seven grandchildren, with 2 requiring C-section birth. So wish we had tis knowledge so many years ago. Thank you.

  6. Everyone asks "How do the gut microbes I'm born with affect my health." Nobody asks "how does my health affect the gut microbes I'm born with!"

  7. NASA gonna find out they cannot send astronauts on long term missions in a sterile environment and maintain optimum health. They are going to have to take along and maintain a rich culture of earth's micro organisms.

  8. You mean I worked all these years to perfect my gut and now there is scientific order to it? I thought it was just a landslide from my once muscular chest.

  9. Cesarean birth almost always leads to lifelong dis-ease due to lack of microbes from the mother….from allergies to serious chronic ailments.
    Was reading about Henry Vlll becoming King cause his sickly older brother died young. So I checked elsewhere on his brother's birth….cesrean.
    My neibors 6 year old, bad alergies. I asked about his birth, cesarean. My niece, now in her 50s, alergies, cesarean.
    The medical/ drug industries will not admit this….to much money in disease.

  10. Hmmmm. More faithbased science from TED? Is this one using keywords from kiddie batman tv, i no longer bother to check.

  11. It’s nice to find the realisations that nothing actually matters. LSD is a good introduction and mushrooms and other natural drugs prompt a confident belief. I would suggest that you stop listening externally and trust your judgment. I have sniffed, drank and sublingually absorbed all natural ‘drugs’. It has affected my chemical mind but I can’t say if it’s been a positive or negative experience. Blue is faster then red apparently. Just relax and listen carefully and the questions disperse themselves. Peace ✌️✌️

  12. Dont want this trash… just watch Joe Rogan Experience episode on this and you'll enjoy this whole thing with a bit more vigor!

  13. So if mom rubs her used underwear in the the kids face and then breast feeds them, they'll have a long happy healthy life🤔.
    Usually you see mom wipe a kids butt, nose and face with the same towel. But that might not be the right idea.

  14. I was naturally via Virginia and breast fed, I understand now that I'm 60 and feel like forty, and always relaxed, while my wife, although very smart, always sick, born via c-section and never breast fed,

  15. It's 2020 and we like to think we're all very open-minded these days but there was an audible lull at the first use of the word vaginal. 😱

    I think what she's alluding to, and I can understand her wanting to circle around the subject, is the health benefits of coprophagia.

    Fecal-oral transmission is particularly common in childbirth as mothers evacuate their bowel while bearing down. No surprise that there are some health effects on the otherwise microbe-free newborn. Nice to hear that they're positive.

  16. I was a C-section and formula baby. My mother was also vegetarian the whole pregnancy with me…. What can adults do for their gut microbes after the fact!?!?

  17. Hey what if after a c section they gave the baby on the outside of the baby swab him with some cultures from the vaginal canal?

  18. This must mean that if I got a fecal transplant from every healthy human being on the planet I would be superhuman!
    She will be my Mary Jane
    And you can call me stool man! 💩

  19. Why would it not be believable? There is money to be made, if it works the drug companies will produce tailor made microbio products.

  20. Hold up… c-section babies… all those things. Right! Mama, I want a do-over!! I was a small baby according to the photos, you can handle it 😂

  21. Great talk. The research for gut microbes should be prioritized for pediatrics care. It greatly reduces diarrhoea occurance, overweight risk, G.I tract disturbance.

  22. I wonder if narcissists and psychopaths may have their own special microbiome composition, maybe a bad bacteria strain, like these Kappa particles in paramecia…

  23. My mom did a bad job, when i was young my body was always in pain, she ignored me, i am a depressed, suicidal grownup now.

  24. The idea of evolution is usually linked with atheism. I wonder what the speaker thinks of it. As a believer in the Almighty , I read the Holy Quran which tells me that the universe is created in a way where everything is ( or must be) in harmony with everything, including humans and microbes. Thanks for this interesting video.

  25. I understand there is something to the cutting away of the cord at birth that separates us prematurely from all the life nutrients in the sack.

  26. What puzzles me is that the microbes in the probiotics we can buy are very different from the actual microbes we have or should have in our guts. I mean the over-the-counter microbes are not even in the 50 most needed microbes.

  27. When you have a C-Section, it's also harder to breast feed the baby bc the body is in trauma mode from the surgery and has a hard time producing milk. Also, the hormones that are released during vaginal birth are not released making it harder to breastfeed. Just food for thought to people who unnecessarily schedule C-Sections. Not attacking anyone decision, especially when there are health risks involved. But this new fad of C sections for convenience is crazy.

  28. SomePeople will always try to impress the mob with their “Sophisticated “ mambo jumbo………Wait!
    They do!

  29. Can they help me with my farts, though?
    They're rancid. It's like… …a thing has died inside me, and now it's decomposing for years, putrid puss filled bunker that gets distilled over years running through my gut, and even worse when it exits…

  30. I can imagine that world! Oh my gosh if we could understand and and pre emptively reduce the probability of things like obesity and diabetes, the multitude of skin afflictions, ibs, and CANCER the world would be an entirely different place! And without invasive surgery or the use of chemical compounds that BIG PHARMA experiments on humans with every day and often have more debilitating and life threatening side effects than the original malady. I am sure big pharma HATES this woman and all of the others involved in this type of research. The billions of dollars these colossal corporations make by treating the symptoms of maladies and not curing us of them is the sole reason that research like this has been suppressed or ignored and only recently ' discovered' by brilliant and (beautiful) progressive thinking researchers like this woman. The a.m.a. is long overdue for change and it begins now to shift it's goal toward actually improving peoples lives rather than lining the pockets of big pharma and it's cronies in the medical money monopoly old school group of doctors.

  31. It’s not easy to figure out what she’s says. She cannot say the word development very well. Just saying- sounds like gabalaga gabagaga.

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